I.  Introduction- This report offers the collective testimony of the Forum for Independent Human Rights NGOs1 on the human rights situation in Egypt. Although the report focuses on the last four years, it relies on the products of nearly a quarter century of human rights advocacy and activism, both on the ground and in the legal arena. Since this report cannot document all the pertinent developments and abuses witnessed during the period under review, it will focus on those events and cases that are broadly indicative of the major problems and obstacles preventing Egyptians from exercising rights upheld by international human rights treaties that have been ratified by the Egyptian government.

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1- This report is prepared by: (1) The Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, (2) Al-Nadim Center for Treatment and Psychological Rehabilitation for Victims of Violence, (3) Andalus Institute for Tolerance and Anti-Violence Studies, (4) Arab Penal Reform Organization, (5) Association for Human Rights Legal Aid, (6) The Group for Human Rights Legal Aid, (7) Hesham Moubarak Law Center, (8) Land Center for Human Rights, (9) New Woman Research Center, (10) The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information, (11) The Center for Trade Union and Workers’ Services, (12) The Egyptian Association for Community Participation Enhancement, (13) The Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights and (14) The Human Rights Center for the Assistance of Prisoners.,(15) Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression and (16) The Egyptian Center For Economic and Social Rights.